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    HAWAII (formerly SANDWICH ISLANDS) is a Territory of the United States of America, consisting of a chain of islands in the North Pacific Ocean, eight inhabited and several uninhabited. The inhabited islands lie between latitudes 18° 54' and 22° 15' N., and between longitudes 154° 50' and 16o° 30' W., and extend about 380 M. from E.S.E. to W.N.W.; the uninhabited ones, mere rocks and reefs, valuable only for their guano deposits and shark-fishing grounds, continue the chain several hundred miles farther W.N.W. From Honolulu, the capital, which is about loo m. N.W. of the middle of the inhabited group, the distance to San Francisco is about 2100 m.; to Auckland, New Zealand, about 3810 m.; to Sydney, New South Wales, about 4410 m.; to Yokohama, about 3400 m.; to Hong-Kong, about 4920 m.; to Manila, about 4890 rn. The total area of the inhabited islands is 6651 sq. m., distributed asfollows: Hawaii, 4210; Maui, 728; Oahu, about 600; Kauai, 547; Molokai, 261; Lanai, 139; Niihau, 97; Kahoolawe, 69. All the islands are of volcanic origin, and have been built up by the eruptive process from a base about 15,000 ft. below the sea to a maximum height (Mauna Kea) on the largest island (Hawaii) of 13,823 ft. above the sea; altogether there are forty volcanic peaks. Evidence of slight upheaval is occasionally afforded by an elevated coral-reef along the shore, and evidence of the :ubsidence of the S. portion of Oahu for several hundred feet has been discovered by artesian borings through coral-rock. In some instances, notably the high and nearly vertical wall along the N. shore of the E. half of Molokai, there is evidence of a fracture followed by the sub-mergence of a portion of a volcano. With the exception of the coral and a small amount of calcareous sandstone, the rocks are entirely volcanic and range from basalt to trachyte, but are mainly basalt. Cinder cones and tuf a cones abound, but one of the most distinguishing features of the Hawaiian volcanoes is the great number of craters of the engulfment type, i.e. pit-craters which enlarge slowly by the breaking off and falling in of their walls, and discharge vast lava-flows with comparatively little violence. The age of the several inhabited islands, or at least the time since the last eruptions on them, decreases from W. to E., and on the most easterly (Hawaii) volcanic forces are still in operation. That those to the westward have long been inactive is shown by the destruction of craters by denudation, by deep ravines, valleys and tall cliffs eroded on the mountain sides, especially on the windward side, by the depth of soil formed from the disintegrated rocks, and by the amount as well as variety of vegetable life. Hawaii Island, from which the group and later the Territory was named, has the shape of a rude triangle with sides of 90 m., 75 M. and 65 m. Its coast, unlike that of the other islands of the archipelago, has few coral reefs. Its surface consists mainly of the gentle slopes of five volcanic mountains which have encroached much upon one another by their eruptions. Mauna Loa (" Great Mountain "), on the S., is by far the largest volcano in the world; from a base measuring at sea-level about 75 in. from N. to S. and 50 M. from E. to W., it rises gradually to a height of 13,675 ft. On its E.S.E. side, at an elevation of 4000 ft. above the sea (300 ft. above the adjoining plain on the W.) is Kilauea, from whose lava-flows the island has been extended to form its S.E. angle. To the N.N.E. of Mauna Loa, and blending with it in an intervening plateau, is Mauna Kea (" White Mountain," so named from the snow on its summit), with a much smaller base but with steeper slopes and a crowning cinder cone 13,823 ft. above the sea, the maximum height in the Pacific Ocean; blending with Mauna Loa on the N.N.W. is Mauna Hualalai, 8269 ft. in height; and rising abruptly from the extreme N.W. shore are the remains of the oldest mountains of the island, the Kohala, with a summit 5505 ft. in height. On the land side the Kohala Mountains have been covered with lava from Mauna Kea, and form the broad plains of Kohala, having a maximum elevation of about 3000 ft.; on the ocean side, wherever this lava has not extended, erosion has gone on until bluffs woo ft. in height face the sea and the enormous gorges of Waipio and Waimanu, with nearly perpendicular walls as much as 3000 ft. high and extending inland 5—6 m., have been formed. Mauna Kea is not nearly so old as the Kohala Mountains, but there is no record of its eruption, nor have its lavas a modern aspect. The last eruption of Mauna Hualalai was in 1801. Mauna Loa and Kilauea are still active. Cinder cones are the predominant type of craters on both Mauna Kea and the Kohala Mountains, and they are also numerous on the upper slopes of Mauna Hualalai; but the more typically Hawaiian pit or engulfment craters also abound on Mauna Hualalai and Mokuaweoweo, crowning the summit of Mauna Loa, as well as Kilauea, to the S.E. of it, are prominent representatives of this type. Kilauea is the largest active crater in the world (8 m. in circumference) and is easily accessible. Enclosed by a circular wall from 200 to 700 ft. in height is a black and slightly undulating plain having an area of 4.14 sq. m., and within this plain is a pit, Halemaumau, of varying area (about 2000 ft. in diameter in 1905), now full of boiling lava, now empty to a depth of perhaps moo ft. When most active, Halemaumau affords a grand spectacle, especially at night: across the crust run glowing cracks, the crust is then broken into cakes, the cakes plunge beneath, lakes of liquid lava are formed, over whose surface play fire-fountains to to 50 ft. in height, the surface again solidifies and the process is repeated.' According to an account of the natives, a violent eruption of Kilauea occurred in 1789, or about that time, and deposits of volcanic sand, large stones, sponge-like scoria (pumice) and ashes for miles around are evidence of such an eruption. Since the Rev. William Ellis and a party of American missionaries first made the volcano known to the civilized ' Among the minor phenomena of Hawaiian volcanoes are the delicate glassy fibres called Pele's hair by the Hawaiians, which are spun by the wind from the rising and falling drops of liquid lava, and blown over the edge or into the crevices of the crater. Pele in idolatrous times was the dreaded goddess of Kilauea. English Miles . to 20 30 40 50 eo 70 8 County Seats Railways, .... . Lava flows Ocean (Cere I. stay I. 4'.P ail and Hennes Rp¢ C O t PeN oioe..0 l'I't [avan L ILMMJJff1I1l Y Ree/ f C aowee[te Re C C 1 d%ner I. ,rwa Brothers Reef .Froet$hodl N fremh Frvpa[e Nester,. ,Bird i. $hoot Nihau Kau. - H Nako/es Pt. Neahote Pt. t HAWAII K,..a: Xt,0Pt - Result. Bas Kea/WO.aP i K uhaSk~s v. Rauteodl Pt n oopalor Mottos.. CS on world in 1823, the eruptions have consisted mainly in the quiet discharge of lava through a subterranean passage into the sea, In the eruptions of 1823, 1832, 1840 and 1868 the floor of the crater rose on the eve of an eruption and then sank, sometimes hundreds of feet, with the discharge of lava; but since 1868 (in 1879, 1886, 1891, 1894 and 1907; and once, before 1868, in 1855) this action has been confined to Halemaumau and such other pits as at the time existed. \lokuaweoweo, on the flat top of Mauna Loa, is a pit crater with a floor 3.7 sq. m. in area and sunk 500–600 ft. within walls that are almost vertical and that measure 9.47 M. in circumference. Formerly, on the eve of a great eruption of Mauna Loa, this crater often spouted forth great columns of flame and emitted clouds of vapour, but in modern times this action has usually been followed by a fracture of the mountain side from the summit down to a point loon ft. or more below where the lava was discharged in great streams, the action at the summit diminishing or wholly ceasing when this discharge began. The first recorded eruption of Mauna Loa was in 1832; since then there have been eruptions in 1851, 1852, 1855, 1859, 1868, 188o–1881, 1887, 1896, 1899 and 1907. The eruptions of 1868, 1887 and 1907 were attended by earthquakes; in 1868 huge sea waves, 40 ft. in height, were raised, and, as they broke on the S. shore, they destroyed the villages of Punaluu, Ninole, Kawaa and Honuapo. But the eruptions of Mauna Loa have consisted mainly in the quiet discharge of enormous flows of lava: in 18J9 the lava-stream, which began to run on the 23rd of January, flowed N.W., reached the sea, 33 M. distant, eight days later, and continued to flow into it until the 25th of November; and the average length of the flows from seven other eruptions is nearly 14 M. The surface of the upper slopes of Mauna Loa is almost wholly of two widely different kinds of barren lava-flows, called by the Hawaiians the pahoehoe and the aa. The pahoehoe has a smooth but billowy or hummocky surface, and is marked by lines which show that it cooled as it flowed. The aa is lava broken into fragments having sharp and jagged edges. As the same stream sometimes changes abruptly from one kind to the other, the two kinds must be due to different conditions affecting the flow, and among the conditions which may cause a stream to break up into the aa have been mentioned the greater depth of the stream, a sluggish current, impediments in its course just as it is granulating, and, what is more probable, subterranean moisture which causes it to cool from below upward instead of from above downward as in the pahoehoe. The natives are in the habit of making holes in the aa, and planting in them banana shoots or sweet-potato cuttings, and though the holes are simply filled with stones or fern leaves, theplants grow and in due time are productive.

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